ORGANISMS DESCRIBED FROM SINGAPORE

Animals

Amphibians

Leptobrachium nigrops (Black-eyed Litter Frog)

Described by P. Y. Berry and J. R. Hendrickson in 1963.

Status: fairly common and protected in the Central Nature Reserves.

 
     

Limnonectes malesianus ( Malesian Frog)

Described by B. H. Kiew in 1984 as Rana malesiana.

Status: present in the Central Nature Reserves and the Western Catchment Area.

 
Photo by Kelvin Lim
     
     

Crustaceans

Johora singaporensis (Singapore Stream Crab)

Described by P. K. L. Ng in 1986.

Status: endemic to Singapore, this freshwater crab is at present critically endangered.

 
Photo by Tan Heok Hui
     

Irmengardia johnsoni (Johnson’s Swamp Crab)

Described by P. K. L. Ng and C. M. Yang in 1985.

Status: this freshwater crab is endemic to Singapore, and vulnerable to habitat loss.

 
Photo by Kelvin Lim
     

Macrobrachium platycheles ( Flat- pincered Swamp Prawn)

Described by Adrian Ou and Darren Yeo in 1995.

Status: rare and restricted to the Central Nature Reserves.

 
Photo by Kelvin Lim
     

Parathelphusa reticulata (Reticulated Swamp Crab)

Described by P. K. L. Ng in 1990.

Status: endemic to Singapore where it is restricted to one small patch of freshwater swamp, and is at present critically endangered.

 
Photo by Tan Heok Hui
     
     

Fishes

Ambassis kopsii (Kops’ Glass Perchlet)

Described by P. Bleeker in 1858.

Status: common in coastal waters.

 
Photo by Tan Heok Hui
     

Hemigobius mingi (Blue-eyed Mullet-goby)

Described by A. W. C. T. Herre in 1936 as Gnatholepis mingi.

Status: inhabits tide pools in mangrove forest, and fairly common.

 
Photo by Tan Heok Hui
     

Hippocampus kuda (Estuarine Seahorse)

Described by P. Bleeker in 1852.

Status: widespread in the Indo-west Pacific but vulnerable to over-collecting for the aquarium and traditional medicine trades.

 
Photo by Tan Heok Hui
     

Mugilogobius tigrinus (Narrow-barred Mangrove Goby)

Described by Helen Larson in 2001.

Status: inhabits streams in mangrove forest, but rarely seen.

 
Photo by Tan Heok Hui
     

Pangio muraeniforme (Spotted Eel-loach)

Described by L. F. de Beaufort in 1933 as Acanthophthalmus ( Cobitophis) muraeniformis.

Status: locally endangered and protected in the Central Nature Reserves.

 
Photo by Kelvin Lim
     

Parakysis longirostris ( Longnose Little Warty Catfish)

Described by Ng Heok Hee and Kelvin Lim in 1995.

Status: restricted to streams in one small area of the Central Nature Reserves, and appears to be critically endangered.

 
Photo by Tan Heok Hui
     

Pseudogobius avicennia ( Avicennia Fatnose Goby)

Described by A. W. C. T. Herre in 1940 as Vaimosa avicennia.

Status: occurs in mangrove streams, and apparently rare.

 
Photo by Tan Heok Hui
     
     

Systomus dunckeri (Malayan Clown Barb)

Described by E. Ahl in 1929 as Barbus dunckeri.

Status: locally extinct, but still survives in southern Peninsular Malaysia.

 
Photo by Ria Tan
     
     

Insects

Pseudophyllodromia laticeps ( Big-eyed Forest Cockroach)

Described by F. Walker in 1869 as Blatta laticeps.

Status: apparently locally restricted to the Central Nature Reserves.

 
Photo by Kelvin Lim
     

Rhabdoblatta circumdata ( Pale-margined Giant Forest Cockroach)

Described by R. Hanitsch in 1915 as Epilampra circumdata.

Status: nocturnal and locally restricted to the Central Nature Reserves.

 
Photo by Kelvin Lim
     
     

Mammals

Presbytis femoralis (Banded Leaf-monkey)

Described by W. Martin in 1838 as Semnopithecus femoralis.

Status: locally endangered and restricted to the Central Nature Reserves.

 
Photo by Chan Kwok Wai
     

Ratufa affinis (Cream- coloured Giant Squirrel)

Described by Stamford Raffles in 1821 as Sciurus affinis.

Status: this squirrel has not been seen in Singapore since 1995, and is feared to be locally extinct.

 
Photo by Morten Strange of an animal from Johor, Malaysia.
     

Sundasciurus tenuis (Slender Squirrel)

Described by T. Horsfield in 1823 as Sciurus tenuis.

Status: common but restricted to the Central Nature Reserves, Botanic Gardens and Bukit Batok Nature Park.

 
Photo by Tan Heok Hui
     
     

Molluscs

Cyclophorus perdix aquila

Described by G. B. Sowerby in 1843 as Cyclostoma aquilum.

Status: Uncommon in Singapore, and restricted to the Central Nature Reserves.

 
Photo by Kelvin Lim
     

Hemiplecta humphreysiana

Described by Isaac Lea in 1841 as Helix humphreysiana.

Status: In Singapore, common in the Central Nature Reserves.

 
Photo by Kelvin Lim
     
     

Reptiles

Aeluroscalabotes felinus (Cat-eyed Gecko)

Described by A. Günther in 1864 as Pentadactylus felinus.

Status: known from the Central Nature Reserves, and appears to be locally endangered.

 
Photo by Kelvin Lim
     

Cantoria violacea (Cantor’s Water Snake)

Described by C. Girard in 1857.

Status: a shrimp-eating aquatic snake that frequents mangrove swamp, but is rarely seen.

 
Photo by Chan Kwok Wai
     

Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus (Mangrove Pit-viper)

Described by J. E. Gray in 1832 as Trigonocephalus purpureo-maculatus.

Status: this venomous snake is present in small numbers in our mangrove forests.

 
Photo by Kelvin Lim