The Biodiversity of the South China Sea

Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research

Turner, I.M., 2000. A bibliography of materials pertaining to the marine and littoral vascularplant floras and vegetation of the South China Sea. Raffles Bull. Zool., Suppl. 8: 117-124.
© The National University of Singapore

A bibliography of materials pertaining to the marine and littoral vascular-

plant floras and vegetation of the South China Sea

I. M. Turner
Singapore Botanic Gardens, 1, Cluny Road, Singapore 259569


A number of important bibliographies cover the flora and vegetation of the South China Sea Region. As I have not been able to see all the relevant references, and cannot therefore vouch for their utility, I refer the reader to these bibliographies.

 Chen, S.-C., 1993. Bibliography of Chinese Systematic Botany, 1949-1990. Guangdong Science & Technology Press, Guangzhou. 810 pp.

Frodin, D.G., 1984. Guide to the Standard Floras of the World. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 619 pp.

Madulid, D.A., & M.G. Agoo, 1992. A Bibliography on Biodiversity Research in the Philippines Part I - Flora. National Museum, Manila. 189 pp.

Reed, C.F., 1969. Bibliography to Floras of Southeast Asia. Privately Published. 191 pp.

Rollet, B., 1981. Bibliography on Mangrove Research 1600-1975. UNESCO, Paris. 479 pp.

Vidal, J.E., H. Falaise, Phan KÍ LÙc & NguyÍn Thi Ky, 1994. Bibliographie Botanique Indochinoise de 1986 ý 1993. Association de Botanique Tropicale, Paris. 105 pp.

Vidal, J.E., Y. Vidal & Pham Hoang HÙ, 1988. Bibliographie Botanique Indochinoise de 1970 ý 1985. Association de Botanique Tropicale, Paris. 132 pp.



Calumpong, H.P. & E.G. MeÒez, 1997. Field Guide to the Common Mangroves, Sea-Grasses and Algae of the Philippines. Bookmark Inc., Makati City. 197 pp.

den Hartog, C., 1970. The sea-grasses of the world. Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Tweede Reeks, 59: 1-276.

Japar, S.B., 1994. Status of seagrass resources in Malaysia. In: C.R. Wilkinson, S. Sudara & L.M. Chou (eds.), Proceedings of the Third ASEAN-Australia Symposium on Living Coastal Resources, Volume 1. Pp. 283-289. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville.

Japar Sidik Bujang, Lamri Ali, Muta Harah Zakaria, Muhamad Saini Suliansa, Mansoruddin Alias, J. Gumpil, & Fazrullah Rizally Abdul Razak, 1997. Halophila decipiens (Hydrocharitaceae), a new seagrass record for Sabah. Sandakania 9: 67-75.

Lewmanomont, K. & H. Ogawa, 1995. Common seaweeds and seagrasses of Thailand. Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok. 163 pp.

Loo, M.G.K., K.P.P. Tun & L.M. Chou, 1996. Environmental status of seagrass communities in Singapore. J. Singapore Nat. Acad. Sci., 22-24: 97-102.

MeÒez, E.G. & H.P. Calumpong, 1983. Thalassodendrom ciliatum, an unreported seagrass from the Philippines. Micronesica, 18: 103-111.

MeÒez, E.G. &  H.P. Calumpong, 1985. Halophila decipiens, an unreported seagrass from the Philippines. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 98: 232-236.

MeÒez, E.G., R.C. Phillips & H.P. Calumpong, 1983. Seagrasses from the Philippines. Smithsonian Contr. Mar. Sci., 21: 1-40.

Phillips, R.C. & E.G. MeÒez, 1988. Seagrasses. Smithsonian Contr. Mar. Sci., 34: 1-104.



Brown, W.H. & A.F. Fischer, 1918. Philippine Mangrove Swamps. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 132 pp.

Calumpong, H.P., 1994. Status of mangrove resources in the Philippines In: C.R. Wilkinson, S. Sudara & L.M. Chou (eds.), Proceedings of the Third ASEAN-Australia Symposium on Living Coastal Resources, Volume 1. Pp. 215-228. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville.

Calumpong, H.P. & E.G. MeÒez, 1997. Field Guide to the Common Mangroves, Sea-Grasses and Algae of the Philippines. Bookmark Inc., Makati City. 197 pp.

Chai, P.P.K., 1975. Mangrove forests in Sarawak. Malaysian Forester, 38: 108-134.

Chai, P.P.K., 1975. The mangrove trees and shrubs of Sarawak. Malaysian Forester, 38: 187-208.

Chai, P.P.K., 1975. Field Key to the Mangrove Trees and Shrubs occurring in Sarawak, including a Brief Description of the Flora. Forest Department, Sarawak. 36 pp.

Chapman, V.J., 1976. Mangrove Vegetation. J. Cramer, Vaduz. 447 pp.

Li, M.S. & S.Y. Lee, 1997. Mangroves of China: a brief review. Forest Ecol. Manage., 96: 241-259.

Lin, P., 1986. Mangrove Vegetation. China Ocean Press, Beijing and Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 74 pp.

Macnae, W., 1968. A general account of the fauna and flora of mangrove swamps and forests in the Indo-West-Pacific Region. Adv. Mar. Biol., 6: 73-270.

Phan NguyÍn HÙng & Hoang Thi San, 1993. Mangroves of Vietnam. IUCN, Gland.

Santisuk, T., 1983. Taxonomy and distribution of terrestrial trees and shrubs in the mangrove formations in Thailand. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc., 31: 63-91.

Srivastava, P.B.L., Abdul Manap Ahmad, G. Dhanarajan & Ismail Hamzah (eds.), 1979. Symposium on Mangrove and Estuarine Vegetation in Southeast Asia. BIOTROP Special Publication 10., BIOTROP, Bogor. 227 pp.

Vu Van Cuong, 1965. Le mangrove du Vietnam. Fl. Cambodge Laos ViÍtnam, 4: 211-216.

Watson, J.G., 1928. Mangrove forests of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan Forest Rec., 6: 1-275.

Whitmore, T.C., 1984. Tropical Rain Forests of the Far East. Second Edition. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 352 pp.

Wyatt-Smith, J., 1960. Field key to the trees of mangrove forests in Malaya. Malayan Forest Rec., 17.

Tomlinson, P.B., 1986. The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 413 pp.

Yang, S.-L. & J.-Y. Chen, 1995. Coastal salt marshes and mangrove swamps in China. Chinese J. Oceanol. Limnol., 13: 318-324.


Coastal Vegetation

Booberg, G., 1933. Die malayische Strandflora. Eine Revision der Schimperschen Artenliste. Bot. Jahrb. Syst., 66: 1-38.

Chen, P.-Y., 1986. The characteristics and ecological evaluation of the coastal vegetation near the estuary of Pearl River. Acta Bot. Austro Sin., 2: 73-82.

Chen, P.-Y. & Z.-X. Li, 1986. An analysis of the flora in the coast region and islands around the mouth of the Pearl River. Acta Bot. Austro Sin., 2: 51-71.

Corner, E.J.H., 1978. The freshwater swamp-forest of south Johore and Singapore. Gard. Bull., Singapore (supplement), 1: 1-266.

Schimper, A.F.W., 1891. Die indo-malayische Strandflora. Verlag von Gustav Fischer, Jena. 204 pp.

Schmid, M., 1974. VÈgÈtation du Viet-Nam: Le Massif Sud-Annamitique et les RÈgions Limitrophes. MÈmoires ORSTOM No. 74. 243 pp.

Soepadmo, E., 1979. Plants of the sandy beach. Nature Malaysiana, 4(2): 24-33.

van Steenis, C.G.G.J. & J.F. Veldkamp, 1987. Botanical guide to the sandy sea shores of Malesia. Fl. Males. Bull., 9: 421-428.

Wong, M. & Aziah binte Hj. Ahmad, 1996. Common Seashore Life of Brunei. Brunei Museum, Bandar Seri Begawan. 121 pp.

Xing, F. & Z. Li, 1995. The beach plants and their geographical distribution in China. Acta Bot. Austro Sin., 10: 21-36.


Small Islands

Booth, W.E., K.M. Wong, K.S. Kamariah, Satish Choy & I. Das, 1997. A survey of the flora and fauna of Pulau Punyit, Brunei Darussalam. Sandakania, 9: 55-66.

Chang, H.T., 1948. The vegetation of the Paracel Islands. Sunyatsenia, 7: 75-89.

Chen, P.-Y., W.-C. Chen & F.-M. Wu, 1983. An enumeration of plants from Xisha Qundao (Islands) of China. Act. Bot. Austro Sin., 1: 129-157.

Corner, E.J.H., 1985. The botany of some islets east of Pahang and Johore. Gard. Bull., Singapore, 38: 1-42.

Gagnepain, M.F., 1934. Quelques plantes des ilots de la mer de Chine. Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., 6: 286.

Hatusima, S., 1966. An enumeration of the plants of Batan Island. Mem. Fac. Agric. Kagoshima Univ., 5: 13-70.

Henderson, M.R., 1930. Notes on the flora of Pulau Tioman and neighbouring islands. Gard. Bull., Straits Settlem., 5: 80-93.

Henderson, M.R., 1931. The "Padang" flora of Jemaja, in the Anamba Islands, N.E.I. Gard. Bull., Straits Settlem., 5: 234-240.

Huang, T.-C., 1998. The floristic relationship among islands of Taiwan, Taipingtao and Tungshatao. Taiwania, 43: 165-176.

Huang, T.-C., S.-F. Huang & T.-H. Hsieh, 1994. The flora of Tungshatao (Pratas Island). Taiwania, 39: 27-53.

Huang, T.-C., S.-F. Huang, T.-H. Hsieh, K.-C. Yang & C.-C. Liu, 1994. The flora of Tungshatao. Ann. Taiwan Mus., 37: 89-106.

Huang, T.-C., S.-F. Huang & K.-C. Yang, 1994. Botanical collection in Taipingtao. Ann. Taiwan Mus., 38: 1-21.

Huang, T.-C., S.-F. Huang & K.-C. Yang, 1994. The flora of Taipingtao (Aba Itu Island). Taiwania, 39: 1-26.

Kerr, A., 1928. Kaw Tao, its physical features and vegetations. J. Siam Soc., Nat. Hist. Suppl., 7: 137-149.

Kerr, A., 1929. Fruits and seeds in the drift on Kaw Tao. J. Siam Soc., Nat. Hist. Suppl., 8: 103-117.

Latiff, A., 1982. Notes on the vegetation and flora of Pulau Pemanggil. Malayan Nat. J., 35: 217-224.

Lee, D.W., B.C. Stone, M. Ratnasabapathy & T.T. Khoo, 1977. The Natural History of Pulau Tioman. Merlin Samudra Tioman Sdn. Bhd., Pulau Tioman.

Liu, T.S., S. Sasaki & H. Keng, 1955. An enumeration of the plants of Lanyu. Quart. J. Taiwan Mus., 8: 283-328; 10: 57-61.

Maxwell, J.F., 1994. Vascular flora of Si Chang Island, Chonburi Province, Thailand. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam. Soc., 42: 41-66.

Merrill, E.D., 1924. Plants from Banguey Island. Philipp. J. Sci., 24: 113-116.

Merrill, E.D., 1926. The flora of Banguey Island. Philipp. J. Sci., 24: 341-427.

Quisumbing, E., 1965. The vegetation of Batan and Babuyan Islands. In: Symposium on Ecological Research in Humid Tropics Vegetation. Pp. 31-37. Government of Sarawak and UNESCO Science Cooperation Office for Southeast Asia.

Ridley, H.N., 1915. The plants of Koh Samui and Koh Pennan. J. Fed. Malay States Mus., 5: 158-168.

Schmidt, J., et al., 1902-1915. Flora of Koh Chang (in 10 parts). Bot. Tidsskr., 24: 1 to 32: 368.

Schmidt, J., 1903. La vegetation de l'Isle Koh Chang. Bull. Soc. Geogr., 8: 275-290.

Schmidt, J., 1925. Vegetation of Koh Lom, a small rocky island west of Koh Chang. J. Siam Soc., 18: 241-242.

Stone, B.C., 1980. The vegetation and plant communities of Pulau Balambangan, Sabah, East Malaysia. J. Malaysian Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc., 53: 68-89.

Turner, I.M., C.M. Boo, L.M.J. Chen, J.P.S. Choo, A. Latiff & A. Zainudin Ismail, 1998. The botany of the islands of Mersing District, Johore, Peninsular Malaysia. 2. The floras of Pulau Aur and Pulau Pemanggil, with notes on the smaller islands. Gard. Bull., Singapore, 50: 59-81.

Turner, I.M., H.T.W. Tan, K.S. Chua, Haji Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad & Y.C.Wee, 1992. A botanical survey of Pulau Ubin. Gard. Bull., Singapore, 44: 51-71.

Turner, I.M., H.T.W. Tan, K.S. Chua, P.T. Chew & Haji Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad, 1993. A botanical reconaissance of Pulau Tinggi, Johore. Malayan Nat. J., 46: 157-168.

Turner, I.M., H.T.W. Tan, P.P. Kumar, K.S. Chua & Haji Samsuri bin Haji Ahmad, 1993. The vegetation of Pulau Sibu, Johore. Malayan Nat. J., 46: 169-188.

Turner, I.M., J.W.H. Yong, A. Latiff & A. Zainudin Ismail, 1997. The botany of the islands of Mersing District, Johore, Peninsular Malaysia. 1. The plants and vegetation of Pulau Tinggi. Gard. Bull., Singapore, 49: 119-141.

van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (with M.R. Henderson), 1932. Botanical results of a trip to the Anambas and Natoena Islands. Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, 12: 151-211.

Wu, T., F. Xing, H. Ye, Z. Li & B. Chen, 1996. Study on the spermatophytic flora of South China Sea Islands. J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot., 4: 1-22.


Complete Floras or Floristic Enumerations

See Frodin (1984) for further and better particulars.

Anderson, J.A.R., 1980. A Check List of the Trees of Sarawak. Forest Department, Sarawak, Kuching. 364 pp.

Backer, C.A. & R.C. Bakhuizen van den Brink, 1963-68. Flora of Java. NV P. Nordoff, Gronigen. 3 Volumes.

Flora Fujianica, 1982-1987. Fujian Science & Technology Press, Fuzhou. 3 Volumes.

Flora Hainanica, 1964-1977. Academia Sinica Press, Guangzhou.

Flora of Taiwan, 1971-1979. First Edition. Epoch Publishing Co. Ltd., Taipei. 6 Volumes.

Keng, H., 1990. The Concise Flora of Singapore: Gymnosperms and Dicotyledons. Singapore University Press, Singapore. 222 pp.

Keng, H., S.C. Chin & H.T.W. Tan, 1998. The Concise Flora of Singapore Volume 2: Monocotyledons. Singapore University Press, Singapore. 215 pp.

Kirkup, D.W., M.J.E. Coode, J. Dransfield, L.L. Forman & Idris M. Said, 1996. A Checklist of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Brunei Darussalam. Forestry Department, Brunei Darussalam and Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Masamune, G., 1942. Enumeratio Phanerogamarum Bornearum. Government Printing Office, Taiwan.

Mendoza, D.R. & R.M. del Rosario, 1967. Philippine Aquatic Flowering Plants and Ferns. National Museum, Manila. 53 pp.

Merrill, E.D., 1921. A bibliographic enumeration of Bornean plants. J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. special no., 1-637.

Merrill, E.D., 1923-1926. An Enumeration of Philippine Flowering Plants. Bureau of Science, Manila. 4 Volumes.

Tree Flora of Malaya, 1972-1989. Longman Malaysia Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur. 4 Volumes.

Turner, I.M., 1993. The names used for Singapore plants since 1900. Gard. Bull., Singapore, 45: 1-287.

Turner, I.M., 1995. A catalogue of the vascular plants of Malaya. Gard. Bull., Singapore, 47: 1-757.


Other Taxonomic Monographs and Revisions

Adema, F., P.W. Leenhouts & P.C. van Welzen, 1994. Sapindaceae. Fl. Males., ser. I., 11: 419-768.

AubrÈville, A., 1963. SapotacÈes. Fl. Cambodge Laos ViÍtnam, 3: 1-105.

Austin, D.F., 1980. Convolvulaceae. Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon, 1: 288-363.

Austin, D.F., 1982. Convolvulaceae. Fl. Ecuador, 15: 1-98.

Austin, D.F. & G.W. Staples, 1980. Xenostegia, a new genus of Convolvulaceae. Brittonia, 32: 533-536.

Baaijens, G.J. & J.F. Veldkamp,  1991. Sporobolus (Gramineae) in Malesia. Blumea, 35: 393-458.

Backer, C.A., C.G.G.J. van Steenis & C.A. Reinders-Gouwentak, 1951-53. Sonneratiaceae. Fl. Males., ser. I., 4: 280-292, 513-515.

Barrow, S.C., 1998. A monograph of Phoenix L. (Palmae: Coryphoideae). Kew Bull., 53: 513-575.

Bittrich, V. & M.C.E. Amaral, 1994. Lectotypification of Gomphia Schreb. (Ochnaceae). Taxon, 43: 89-93.

Chen, J. & J.J. Pipoly, 1996. Myrsinaceae. Fl. China, 15: 1-38.

Chen, S.-L. & M.G. Gilbert, 1994. Verbenaceae. Fl. China, 17: 1-49.

den Hartog, C., 1957. Hydrocharitaceae. Fl. Males., ser. I, 5: 381-413.

Duke, N.C., 1991. A systematic revision of the mangrove genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in Australasia. Austral. Syst. Bot., 4: 299-324.

Duyfjes, B.E.E., 1996. Hernandiaceae. Fl. Males., ser. I., 12: 737-761.

Exell, A.W., 1954. Combretaceae. Fl. Males., ser. I., 4: 533-589.

Fang, R.-C., H. Riedl & R. Kamelin, 1995. Boraginaceae. Fl. China, 16: 329-427.

Fang, R.-C. & G. Staples, 1995. Convolvulaceae. Fl. China, 16: 271-325.

Fosberg, F.R., 1976. Ipomoea indica taxonomy: a tangle of morning glories. Bot. Not., 129: 35-38.

Fosberg, F.R., 1997. Aizoaceae (Ficoideae). Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon, 11: 1-7.

Fosberg, F.R., 1997. Goodeniaceae. Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon, 11: 284-286.

Goudswaard, P.C., 1980. The genus Zoysia (Gramineae) in Malesia. Blumea, 26: 169-175.

Grierson, A., 1980. Compositae. Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon, 1: 111-278.

Hansen, C. & G.E. Wickens, G.E., 1981. A revision of Ochthocharis (Melastomataceae) including Phaeoneuron of Africa. Kew Bull., 36: 13-29.

Hattink, T.A., 1974. A revision of Malesian Caesalpinia, including Mezoneuron (Leguminosae - Caesalpiniaceae). Reinwardtia, 9: 1-69.

Heine, H., 1976. BoraginacÈes. Fl. Nouv. Caledonie, 7: 95-118.

Hou, D., 1958. Rhizophoraceae. Fl. Males., ser. I, 5: 429-493.

Hou, D., 1970. Rhizophoraceae. Fl. Thailand, 2: 5-15.

Hou, D., K. Larsen & S.S. Larsen, 1996. Caesalpiniaceae. Fl. Males., ser. I., 12: 409-730.

Huber, H., 1983. Asclepiadaceae. Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon, 4: 73-124.

Kern, J.H. & H.P. Nooteboom, 1974 & 1979. Cyperaceae. Fl. Males, ser. I., 7: 435-753, 9: 107-187.

Knaap-van Meeuwen, M.S., 1970. A revision of four genera of the tribe Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae-Cynometreae in Indomalesia and the Pacific. Blumea, 18: 1-52.

Koyama, T., 1985. Cyperaceae. Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon, 5: 125-405.

Krukoff, B.A. & R.C. Barneby, 1974. Conspectus of species of the genus Erythrina. Lloydia, 37: 332-459.

Kubitzki, K., 1969. Monographie der Hernandiaceen, Teil II. Bot. Jahrb. Syst., 89: 149-209.

Lazarides, M., 1980. The tropical grasses of Southeast Asia. Phanerogam. Monogr., 12: 1-225.

Lazarides, M., 1995. The genus Eriachne (Eriachneae, Poaceae). Austral. Syst. Bot., 8: 355-452.

Leenhouts, P.W., 1957. Goodeniaceae. Fl. Males., ser. I, 5: 335-344.

Leuenberger, B.E., 1993. Interpretation and typification of Cactus opuntia L., Opuntia vulgaris Mill., and O. humifusa (Rafin.) Rafin. (Cactaceae). Taxon, 42: 419-429.

Li, P.-T., M.G. Gilert & W.D. Stevens, 1995. Asclepiadaceae. Fl. China, 16: 189-270.

Li, P.-T., A.J.M. Leeuwenberg & D.J. Middleton, 1995. Apocynaceae. Fl. China, 16: 143-188.

Li, S.-G. & T.D. Pennington, 1996. Sapotaceae. Fl. China, 15: 205-214.

Lock, J.M. & J. Heald, 1994. The Legumes of Indo-China: a Check-list. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 164 pp.

Mabberley, D.J., 1985. William Theobald (1829-1908): unwitting reformer of botanical nomenclature? Taxon, 34: 152-156.

Mabberley, D.J., C.M. Pannell & A.M. Sing, 1995. Meliaceae. Fl. Males., ser. I., 12: 1-407.

Manitz, H., 1977. Was ist Ipomoea violacea L.? Feddes Repert., 88: 265-271.

Markgraf, F., 1979. Florae Malesianae Praecursores LIX. Apocynaceae V. Ochrosia, Neisosperma. Blumea, 25: 233-247.

Maxwell, J.F., 1980. Revision of Memecylon L. (Melastomataceae) from the Malay Peninsula. Gard. Bull., Singapore, 33: 31-150.

Moldenke, H.N., 1971. A fifth summary of the Verbenaceae, Avicenniaceae, Stilbaceae, Chloanthaceae, Symphoremaceae, Nyctanthaceae, and Eriocaulaceae of the world as to valid taxa, geographic distribution and synonymy. Phytologia Mem., 1: 1-974.

Moldenke, H.N., 1980. A sixth summary of the Verbenaceae, Avicenniaceae, Stilbaceae, Chloanthaceae, Symphoremaceae, Nyctanthaceae, and Eriocaulaceae of the world as to valid taxa, geographic distribution and synonymy. Phytologia Mem., 2: 1-629.

Moldenke, H.N. & A.L. Moldenke, 1983. Verbenaceae. Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon, 4: 196-487.

NguyÍn Van Thu‚n, 1979. LÈgumineuses - PapilionoÔdÈes PhasÈolÈes. Fl. Cambodge Laos ViÍtnam, 17: 1-217.

Nicolson, D.H., C.R. Suresh & K.S. Manilal, 1988. An interpretation of Van Rheede's Hortus Malabaricus. Regnum Veg., 119: 1-378.

Nooteboom, H.P., 1994. Notes on Davalliaceae II. A revision of the genus Davallia. Blumea, 39: 151-214.

Peng, Z.-X. & R.V. Kamelin, 1996. Plumbaginaceae. Fl. China 15: 190-204.

Phengklai, C., 1981. Casuarinaceae. Fl. Thailand, 4: 400-401.

Phengklai, C., 1993. Tiliaceae. Fl. Thailand, 6: 10-80.

Philcox, D., 1997. Euphorbiaceae. Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon, 11: 80-283.

Philcox, D., 1997. Malvaceae. Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon, 11: 287-360.

Plaizier, A.C., 1981. A revision of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae). Meded. Landbouwhogeschool, 81-9: 1-12.

Riedl, H., 1997. Boraginaceae. Fl. Males., ser. I., 13: 43-144.

Rintz, R.E., 1978. The Peninsular Malaysian species of Hoya (Asclepiadaceae). Malayan Nat. J., 30: 467-522.

Rintz, R.E., 1980. The Peninsular Malayan species of Dischidia (Asclepiadaceae). Blumea, 26: 81-126.

Santisuk, T., 1992. Sonneratiaceae. Fl. Thailand, 5: 434-441.

Sauer, J., 1964. Revision of Canavalia. Brittonia, 16: 106-181.

Sauer, J.D., 1972. Revision of Stenotaphrum (Gramineae: Paniceae) with attention to its historical geography. Brittonia, 24: 202-222.

Seidenfaden, G. & J.J. Wood, 1992. The orchids of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Olsen & Olsen, Fredensborg. 779 pp.

Stevens, P.F., 1980. A revision of the Old World species of Calophyllum (Guttiferae). J. Arnold Arbor., 61: 117-699.

Strother, J.L., 1991. Taxonomy of Complaya, Elaphandra, Iogeton, Jefea, Wamalchitamia, Wedelia, Zexmenia and Zyzxia (Compositae-Heliantheae-Ecliptinae). Syst. Bot. Monogr., 33: 1-111.

Tagawa, M. & K. Iwatsuki, 1979-89. Pteridophytes. Fl. Thailand, 3: 1-483.

Telford, I.R.H., 1993. Goodeniaceae. Fl. Australia, 50: 391-392.

van Borssum Waalkes, J., 1966. Malesian Malvaceae revised. Blumea, 14: 1-251.

van Eck-Borsboom, M.H.J., 1980. A revision of Eriachne R. Br. (Gramineae) in Asia and Malesia. Blumea, 26: 127-138.

van Ooststroom, S.J., 1953. Convolvulaceae. Fl. Males., ser. I., 4: 388-513.

Veldkamp, J.F., 1973. A revision of Digitaria Haller (Gramineae) in Malesia. Blumea, 21: 1-80.

Veldkamp, J.F. & H. van Steenbergen, 1992. Perotis Aiton in Australia and Southeast Asia. Austrobaileya, 3: 609-614.

Verdcourt, B., 1979. A Manual of New Guinea Legumes. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae. 645 pp.

Vu Van Cuong, 1965. Rhizophoraceae. Fl. Cambodge Laos ViÍtnam, 4: 131-187.

Vu Van Cuong, 1965. Sonneratiaceae. Fl. Cambodge Laos ViÍtnam, 4: 193-216.

Wadhwa, B.M., 1997. Surianaceae. Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon., 11: 418-420.

Whitmore, T.C., 1977. Palms of Malaya. Revised Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 132 pp.

Wong, K.M., 1984. A synopsis of Morinda (Rubiaceae) in the Malay Peninsula, with two new species. Malayan Nature Journal, 38: 89-98.

Wood, J.J. & P.J. Cribb, 1994. A checklist of the orchids of Borneo. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 409 pp.